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持有 USDT 安全嗎?UST 穩定幣不穩定 認識「法幣抵押穩定幣」

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by Connie —— 2022-05-12
55 share / 5.7k views

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由 Terra 發行的穩定幣 TerraUSD(UST)日前一度由高位 0.939 美元,急瀉至 0.2 美元。令人開始質疑穩定幣價格亦不穩定,持有 USDT 需要擔心嗎?

 

為甚麼穩定幣會崩盤? 「演算法穩定幣」是甚麼?

一般而言,穩定幣應跟美元或其他實體資產掛鈎,價格會較一般加密貨幣幣價穩定。例如 USDT、USDC、UST 等穩定幣,向來與美金的價格以掛鈎。

不過,UST 屬於「演算法穩定幣崩」,創建穩定幣 UST 的方法是使用智能合約以自動化和可編程的方式維護掛鉤。UST 跟同系代幣LUNA互相以 1:1 掛鈎,再透過母公司 LFG(Luna Foundation Guard)及市場透過美元買賣 LUNA 的形式維持價格,因此一旦 LUNA 崩盤,UST 亦受拖累。 

USDT「法幣抵押穩定幣」由實物儲備支持

法幣抵押穩定幣由等量的法定貨幣作為抵押,通常由中央監管人持有,由實物儲備中的現實世界現金支持,以跟隨其標的資產的價格動態。 

中央監管人收到 1 法幣美元,然後鑄造 1 個單位的 USDT,其價值等於 1 美元。這種類型的穩定幣包括 USDT、USDC、GUSD、TUSD 等與法定貨幣掛鉤的代幣。

所以相較 演算法穩定幣」,「法幣抵押穩定幣」更穩定,不容易崩盤

USDT 有甚麼優勢?

流通度、使用度、交易量

目前,所有交易所最基本的交易對都以 USDT 為媒介,目前為止,USDT是全世界最大流通的穩定幣,亦是每個交易平台必備的幣種之一,以作給用戶作為交易、充值及提現。大部份的加密貨幣交易員都以 USDT 兌換其他加密貨幣,相較 USDC 等其餘加密貨幣,使用量、流通量均更高。例如,BTC/USDT 的成交量遠超於 BTC/USDC 及 BTC/UST。

規模儲備

USDT 是目前交易量最大的穩定幣,由 Tether 公司發行。目前 USDT 是加密貨幣市場中流通最廣的穩定幣,亦是所有加密貨幣市值排行第四名的貨幣。

穩定幣 USDT Tether 2021 年底公布的儲備報告。截至 2021 年底,Tether 總資產至少為 786 億美元,並指其持有的儲備金足以支持贖回所發行的穩定幣,相較其最大的競爭對手 USDC 的市值約為 527 億美元,多出足足 260 億美元。

歷史

USDT 於 2014 年發行,是世界上第一個穩定幣,當時 Bitcoin 投資者 Brock Pierce、企業家 Reeve Collins 及軟件開發員 Craig Sellers 三人以 Realcoin 的名義創立 USDT。而 USDC 及其他穩定幣在 2018 後才發行,USDT 相比其他穩定幣歷史更久遠。

USDT 現時是最多人用的穩定幣,無論以技術而言,或以流通度、使用度、交易量、規模儲備及歷史等,都遠超於其餘穩定幣。

現時加密貨幣交易所中,USDT 為本的交易對成交額,仍然比以其他穩定幣為本的交易對高,證明市場交易者仍相信USDT的穩定性。

利好 21
利空 1

17 thoughts on “持有 USDT 安全嗎?UST 穩定幣不穩定 認識「法幣抵押穩定幣」

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