by Ken Ho —— 2022-04-20
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一般而言，當你想要從美國匯款到烏克蘭時，哪怕只有 100 美元，金融機構通常都會從中收取 10% 甚至更高的轉帳費用。但若透過比特幣的第二層支付協議 ——「閃電網絡（Lightning Network）」，交易幾乎即時完成，費用幾乎為零。
2 月 24 日這一天，俄羅斯全面入侵烏克蘭，震驚全世界。在戰爭爆發前，現居波蘭的烏克蘭人 Alena Vorobiova 對比特幣並沒有什麼特別的想法，然而，隨之而來的邊境封鎖、砲擊不斷，全國各地 ATM 開始被提領一空，烏克蘭央行甚至下令禁止電子現金轉帳，面對如此窘境，她決定嘗試使用比特幣。
一般而言，當你想要從美國匯款到烏克蘭時，哪怕只有 100 美元，金融機構通常都會從中收取 10% 甚至更高的轉帳費用，但若是透過比特幣的第二層支付協議 ——「閃電網絡（Lightning Network）」，情況就大不相同了，交易幾乎即時完成，費用幾乎為零。
有賴於比特幣核心開發人員 Gleb Naumenko 所提供的專業知識以及他的翻譯技能，Alena Vorobiova 和《CNBC》記者使用閃電支付進行一場比特幣跨境轉帳的實驗。實測結果用一句話來說明：「它確實就如比特幣愛好者所言般，即快速又方便。」
在 Gleb Naumenko 的指導下， Alena Vorobiova 先在家裡下載並安裝了支援比特幣轉帳、閃電支付的自託管錢包 Muun，然後記者和 Gleb Naumenko 再各自分別向她新開的錢包發送 50,000 枚聰（SATS）。
如此操作，單筆交易的費用甚至不到 1 美分，轉帳也只花了大約 1 分鐘， Alena Vorobiova 便成功收到了 100,000 枚聰（SATS），大約是 0.0010 枚比特幣。
接著， Alena Vorobiova 再前往位於波蘭西南部城市弗羅茨瓦夫（Wroclow）的比特幣 ATM 提領現金。她先是透過 ATM 取得一張 QR Code，然後使用 Muun 錢包進行掃描，再將 100,000 枚聰轉入 ATM 帳戶，沒過多久，這台比特幣 ATM 就立馬吐出現鈔 —— 170 波蘭貨幣茲羅提，價值約 40 美元。在這這筆交易當中，比特幣 ATM 供應商收取了 10 茲羅提作為手續費，約佔交易總額的 5.5%。
換言之，這次實驗一開始從下載錢包，接著透過閃電網絡把比特幣從美國轉移到波蘭，最後再到比特幣 ATM 提領等值現金。若不計算前往比特幣 ATM 的時間，整個過程只花不到 3 分鐘。
對於 Alena Vorobiova 來說，這更像是一個有趣的實驗。想到以後能夠輕鬆往返烏克蘭和波蘭兩國，她終於可以放下心頭大石。 Alena Vorobiova 正在遵循烏克蘭當局的指示，現階段只靠信用卡拮据度日。然而，這次實驗足以說明，即便手上沒有任何可用的金融工具，難民仍然可以透過加密錢包進行日常交易。
有些烏克蘭人會使用加密錢包來進行點對點交易，當然也有人發現，無論自己身處世界哪個角落，隨手就能透過閃電支付，以更快速、低成本的方式接收捐款和匯款。在波蘭，就有超過 175 台比特幣 ATM，允許難民將比特幣兌換成法定貨幣。
人權基金會（Human Rights Foundation）策略長 Alex Gladstein 說：「我人在美國加州，隨時可以把資金發送到你的手機，不限金額。我們不必擔心你是難民這一事實。沒有波蘭護照或銀行帳戶也沒關係。這些都不重要。」
13 thoughts on “加密貨幣成「逃難救命符」？烏克蘭女子實測：花 3 分鐘就領到現金”
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